- Multi-zone control capability with dedicated zone remote unit
- I/O Direct Symmetrical Design with top-quality parts, ART (Anti-Resolution and Tough) Base and solid center bar
- CD Direct Amplification
- Pure Direct
- High dynamic power, low-impedance drive capability
- Gold-plated input terminals
- Aluminum front panel and knobs
- Rec out selector
When processing and transmission of the audio signal is simple and direct there is less chance of it being affected by noise and distortion. Yamaha’s amplifier design technology called ToP-ART (Total Purity Audio Reproduction Technology) features I/O (input to output) Direct Symmetrical Design, with left and right channels organized in a straight, symmetrical layout for highest signal purity.
Audio & Video
Yamaha HiFi Component Development
A conversation with the Yamaha HiFi Team.
The A-S2000 Integrated Amplifier and CD-S2000 Super Audio CD Player, followed by the A-S1000 and CD-S1000, and then the mid-class A-S700 and CD-S700, have been released, completing the Yamaha New HiFi Component lineup. We've asked the developers of these models to tell us about their attractive qualities and to explain the differences between the sound of each series.
This article is based on an interview held on March 30, 2009, in the Yamaha Product Development Room.
AV Products Div., Product
Development Dept., HiFi Group
Project leader of the A-S2000/S1000. Oversees the sound quality of all Yamaha HiFi components, including the CD-S2000, CD-S1000 and CD-S700 Series.
CA-1000 (introduced in 1973)
An early work representative of Yamaha integrated amplifiers, with a beautifully designed package of innovations such as an A/B switching power amp, a phono-equalizer with a pair of FETs in the input stage and others to satisfy the demands of audiophiles. It was a luxury product people yearned for, with a price of 98,000 yen at a time when starting salaries were between 50,000 and 60,000 yen a month.
Technology Development Dept.
In charge of design of the mechanisms of the CD-S2000, CD-S1000 and CD-S700. One of his creations was the Yamaha original loader mechanism, praised for its quietness and smoothness.
—The S2000 Series, S1000 Series and S700 Series have joined the Yamaha HiFi component lineup. We again see Yamaha's willingness to undertake full-scale initiatives concerning HiFi components, just as in the age of the CA-1000.
Kumazawa:Yamaha now has a strong Home Theater image, but there was a period when it was best known for its HiFi components. Perhaps because of this corporate DNA, we who develop AV components retain a strong love for music and audio components. We have long held the dream of once more making a genuine commitment in the field of HiFi.
—This dream was realized by the Soavo Series of luxury speakers that appeared in 2006 and by the A-S2000 Integrated Amplifier and CD-S2000 Super Audio CD Player that followed the Soavo.
Kumazawa:Yes. While Soavo also earned high praise for its sound quality, it enabled us to discover the characteristics of the luxury HiFi product markets in Japan and Europe. In addition, our dealers asked for amps and CD players that would match the Soavo Series for quality, so we began to think seriously about developing them.
—So you mean that the go-ahead for the S2000 Series was given as part of this process?
Kumazawa:That's right. Of course, at first we did not consider creating an amp or CD player only for Soavo; we believed that it would be meaningless if it could not gain a good reputation as an individual product, but in fact, the project was initiated thanks to Soavo.
—The A-S2000 Integrated Amplifier aroused considerable interest with its styling that inherited the image of the CA-1000. I think that this was favorably accepted by audio fans and Yamaha fans, but inside the company, didn't some people question this choice?
Yazaki:None of our team members expressed surprise or objections. We were all determined that if we were going to do it, we should make both the sound and the design Yamaha-like. That's why we were all thinking of this type of design.
—The CA-1000 was introduced in 1973, so you and Mr. Yagi are the only CD Development Team veterans who remember it, I suppose.
Yazaki:Yes, I am now the most senior person, but I was a university student at that time, and the CA-1000 was an amp that I yearned for but that was out of my reach. Therefore, I had a strong desire to continue its tradition.
Kumazawa:While many recent HiFi amps from other companies are designed symmetrically with large round knobs on their left and right sides, Yamaha uses an asymmetrical front panel design. The configuration of the circuits and internal construction are thoroughly symmetrical from left to right, but by daring to make the design asymmetrical, we created a Yamaha-like, unique design.
—I certainly feel that the front panel is more asymmetrical than that of the CA-1000. People who have never seen the CA-1000 might think it is a modern design if they were to see it in a store.
Kumazawa:A-S2000 is often said to be retro style, but it looks quite different when placed beside an old product. It should not be called a revival product; it is probably more accurate to say that its design reveals the essence of Yamaha design concept.
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—In the sense that it is Yamaha-like, the Floating and Balanced Circuit Design adopted by the A-S2000 and A-S1000 is a typical Yamaha technology, isn't it? I think that its creativity and vitality, which embody technologies previously never seen nor heard of, are only possible from Yamaha. I hear that its circuits, and actually the idea itself, gestated for a long time.
Aramaki:Yes. It is a practical product based on a principle which Masao Noro (AV Products Div., Product Development Dept., First Development Group Manager), a veteran audio engineer who has designed many HiFi amps and other products, proposed ten years ago.
—Mr. Noro is famous for the many patents he has earned for his unique circuits: the MX-D1 Stereo Digital Power Amplifier and so on.
Aramaki:In the AV Products Division he is called "the inventor"(laughs). It has been a long Yamaha tradition that our new-generation HiFi amps have introduced new circuits. So because I wanted to do the same this time, I went to consult with Mr. Noro.
—So you developed this circuit. But to tell the truth, whether I see the circuit diagram or read the explanation of the Floating and Balanced Circuit Design, I cannot make head nor tail of it (laughs).
Aramaki:Actually, when it was first explained to me, even I did not understand it very well, and wondered, "Will it really work?" (laughs). But I felt the appeal of the extremely rare technique of an amp and power source operating in harmony like the pistons of an automobile, so for a while we just tackled it by trial manufacturing. It took about one month before it produced a sound, so I was very happy when I heard that sound.
—At first, were you worrying, "it won't make it worse?"
Aramaki:I certainly was (laughs). When the sound was created, I compared it with circuits developed by conventional methods and with the quality of their sound. I found out that it was superior in the low frequency range, the S/N ratio was high, and the sound field sensation was rich, so I finally thought, "This could be really good."
—The main type of output stage of previous transistor power amps is a circuit called "Push-Pull", but shouldn't this be called "Pull-Pull"(laughs) ?
Aramaki:Yes. In a conventional amp, the plus side pushes the current and the minus side pulls the current with the ground as its standard. But in this circuit, both the plus side and minus side pull in the current, and the circuit operates totally symmetrically. And it is designed so that from the circuit board layout to the power source transformer, or in other words, the entire circuit, is symmetrical. So that the circuit is internally symmetrical, the left and right channels are symmetrical, and so is the power source. And even the protector and other peripheral circuits were redesigned based on a new concept.
—Looking at the circuit diagram, wasn't it challenging to make the power transistor which consists only of NPN type? It is definitely symmetrical, isn't it?
Aramaki:That's true. Conventional power amp circuits appear to be symmetrical at a glance, but because PNP and NPN types are combined, it cannot realistically be symmetrical. So even if feedback is provided so that the apparent operation on the plus and minus sides conform, through the process of creating waveforms, the current flows on the plus and minus sides differ, depending on whether the circuit is PNP or NPN. With the Floating and Balanced Circuit, it is truly a symmetrical shape, so even through the process of creating waveforms on the plus side and minus side, the ways the currents flow conform completely. Naturally this will be expressed by differences in sound.
—Concerning this and the A-S2000, the Full Floating and Balanced Circuit Design realizes the full potential of analog amplification for the first time, doesn't it? Receiving only balanced input, and internally converting it to single ended is seen in inexpensive machines, but when it comes to completely balanced transmission, conventionally, it was only used in super luxury class separate amps, so wasn't this very revolutionary for this class of integrated amp?
Aramaki:In order to achieve completely balanced transmission by the conventional method, it was necessary to have sets of two identical power amp circuits for each channel, so it could only be adopted for some luxury machines. But with the Floating and Balanced Circuit Design, this is unnecessary, and we can now use it in integrated power amps selling for about 200,000 yen. And because it can be assembled with only a few components, it benefits sound quality.
—The A-S1000 is single-ended input specialized, but even so doesn't it include the benefits of Floating and Balanced Circuit Design?
Aramaki:Yes, quite a lot. If differences of output are excluded, the power amp circuitry is the same as that of the A-S2000, so you can fully enjoy the feeling of stability, good S/N and information quantity possible only with balanced amplification. If you are not a stickler for balanced connection, it is a machine we definitely want you to consider.
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—It is often said that in order to develop HiFi components with good sound, it is important to pass on technology and expertise. I think that at Yamaha, luxury amp technologies have been handed down through its premier AV receivers and other products, but there was a very long blank in luxury CD players.
Yagi:That is an acute observation (laughs). The last time a CD player from Yamaha could be called a true luxury machine was the GT-CD1, so when I was first informed of the plan for the CD-S2000/S1000, I honestly wondered if it would be possible to start again.
—The GT-CD1? It has been 18 years since it went on sale in 1991, hasn't it?
Yagi:Yes. When discussion of the CD-S2000 started, I visited audio stores in various districts to find out the actual market situation. I was told that there are many potential Yamaha fans still around, and that the dealers wanted us to make something that would not betray those people. I felt strong pressure to not undermine the fame that Yamaha had acquired in the past.
—The CD-S2000, which was the first "comeback" model, was evaluated very positively for its good sound quality. I have heard it. It is exquisite and balanced, and I felt the attractiveness of its Yamaha-like characteristics that let me feel the dynamism of the music.
Yagi:Thank you. Whether or not the CD-S2000 could be accepted in the market was actually an even more unknown quantity than the A-S2000, but as it turns out, its sales surpass those of the A-S2000, for which I am very grateful.
—Compared with the amp, the configuration of the CD player is comparatively orthodox.
Yagi:That's true. We started by going back to basics and strived to seriously and diligently create something good. First, the most important factor for CD playback is reading precision, so we created a highly rigid and low vibration mechanism to solidly support this precision. Then, basically we did all that we could, for example, lowering impedance, separating the analog and digital circuits, and isolating the left and right channels.
—The core of the player is Yamaha's original loader mechanism, isn't it?
Yazaki:Yes. This mechanism was primarily intended to solidly support the CD drive with a stiff chassis, but by striving to lower the sound of the operation of the CD tray to the level of a luxury machine, we developed a new quiet loading mechanism using mesh wire. Through this design, we hoped to create a unit with a thin CD tray and no level differences. In the CD-S2000/S1000 we combined it with a thin aluminum diecast tray and in the CD-S700, we combined it with a thin BMC (high specific gravity resin) tray.
—By the way, the operation of this tray is astonishingly quiet and provides a luxury feeling. Even high-end CD players that are much more expensive do not have trays like this, do they?
Yazaki:Thank you. This was achieved by using the uneven shape of resin wire used for printer heads to drive the CD tray. Convention models use gears and belts. It is a technology offered only by our company.
—I hear it is also durable.
Tanabe:Yes. Because it stretches like a belt so there is no danger of it slipping, it is highly reliable. The CD drive itself does not have a particularly unusual configuration, but we took care to ensure that it can be used as long as a luxury machine lasts by selecting particularly highly reliable components.
Yagi:I participated in this development, and realized that people such as me who are familiar with analog technology, are more comfortable developing CD players than Blu-ray Disc players (laughs). You can call it craftsmanship, but developing CD players requires the careful consideration of many parts not shown on the circuit diagram.
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To control unnecessary resonance, new innovations were elaborately created for the top panels. The side wood was beautifully finished to the back with natural veneer panels.
—I am asking again, but specifically just what kind of sound is the Yamaha sound you aimed for with this HiFi component series?
Kumazawa:As usual, "natural" says it all. The term "natural sound," which Yamaha has used for a long time, is defined in various ways, but natural as we use it here means that in the case of a violin for example, we know the size of the instrument, we understand the position of the performers and the harmony resonating between them, and we understand the feeling of the blending of the sounds of the different instruments. In sum, we think of it as sound that permits instrument representation without exaggeration.
—When I hear your explanation, I say "Of course," but in fact, audio equipment that can actually provide such sound is very rare regardless of price, isn't it?
Kumazawa:That may be true. If we talk about subtlety, for example, we want to advance into the range called delicacy of harmony created in space, and even with bass, the low sound of a live wood bass is probably not that heavy. We want to value bass play as musical expression, not as a sound that is overwhelming in audio terms.
—When I hear the sound of the A-S2000 and A-S1000, I really feel as if instruments are actually being played, and that it is sound that seems to be developed by people with many opportunities to be in contact with live music. But the sound is clearly different between the S2000 and the S1000 Series, including both the amps and the CD players.
Kumazawa:Yes. The S2000 Series is the flagship of Yamaha, so in all senses, it must be multi-purpose. To put it simply, for example, perfectly reproducing a Mahler symphony with a low impedance speaker (laughs). The sound of the S2000 Series heard with a balanced connection in particular, is truly high resolution and has splendid S/N, so I can recommend it confidently to people who want to hear music precisely, even the small details of the music, but I suppose there are also people who want to listen in a more relaxed way.
—In such cases, I feel that the sound becomes very loose, simply because of the single ended connection.
Kumazawa:That's true. With a single ended connection, the energy is tightly contracted in the middle range, and feels as if it is played casually. I don't mean to say that if people buy a S2000 Series, by all means they have to use a balanced connection. I want them to enjoy the differences between sounds according to the connection.
—Turning to the sound of the S1000 Series, it would be a big mistake to think that it is merely a less expensive version of the S2000 Series, and in terms of the degree of musical attractiveness, aren't there aspects that give the feeling that it has surpassed the S2000 Series?
Kumazawa:I am happy that you say that. I like classic music, but I also love the groovy feeling of rhythm and blues, soul and jazz, and I want to faithfully hear the spiritual atmosphere characteristic of performance by black women vocalists, for example. So I actually intended to strongly incorporate this feeling into the S1000 Series.
—Certainly, the S1000 Series reproduces music with a lively feeling, doesn't it? Of course, speaking in terms of audio quality, the S2000 Series is superior I suppose, but...
Kumazawa:Audio evaluations that focus on the depth of the bass, the elongation of the treble, the resolution, and the expression of soundscape depth, naturally rate the S2000 Series higher. Its responsiveness to a variety of musical genres is higher, and with balanced connection in particular, I think the differences can be felt. Therefore, inversely, the S1000 Series is not bound by such aspects, and aware of the aspects of musicality, enjoyment and openness, I want it to provide sound that can be enjoyed in a relaxed manner with the attractiveness of the music heard more directly.
—The S1000 Series went on sale half a year after the S2000 Series, so weren't you able to thoroughly tackle its sound creation?
Kumazawa:That may be. I think we were able to take more time to make changes to the S1000 Series, even including details such as the adjustment of custom sound quality components, adjustment of the installation locations and quantity of dampers, and other vibration control measures.
—Specifically, in what direction did you refine the sound?
Kumazawa:What we valued was, to begin with the bass range, expression with accurate pitch sensation, good response, and a groovy feeling. In the mid range, it was texture and the intonation of the melody instruments, and in the treble range, it was the natural resonance and clarity of the sound that emerges from the instruments. I think that we can more closely approach the core of music, which is expressing the emotions of the musicians, by pursuing musical expression of this kind.
—I see. When I look at the product information, in the A-S1000, balanced input is omitted, and in the CD-S1000, the power source transformer is single, and balanced output is omitted. As this shows, my attention inevitably focuses on differences between equipment, but when I actually listen to and compare them, my perspective changes. There are many attractive aspects unique to the A-S1000.
Kumazawa:Certainly the A-S1000 has a smaller transformer and block capacitors than the A-S2000, but it can be said that this inversely clarified the goal of the tuning that we should aim for.
Yazaki:In our office, it is said that S-1000 series should be more expensive because of quite high cost (laughs). I think that in this sense, it is a great deal.
—Certainly, I feel that compared with other models in the same price range, its contents are packed in. Because its design is sharp, it appears light, but when you pick it up, it's heavy.
Kumazawa:If I am allowed to quietly give my true opinion, we incorporated our thoughts more directly, so I suppose the 1000 series is, personally, more adorable (laughs).
—Ah ha. You have finally said it (laughs). Well then, I suppose from your perspective, it is possible to match the CD-S1000 with the A-S2000, or vice versa, isn't it?
Kumazawa:Yes, I think so. Taking the combination of the CD-S1000 and the A-S2000 as an example, the CD player's warm tone skillfully covers the slightly cool feeling of the amp, creating a very delicate balance.
—I see. Creating such a way of enjoying them is a hidden charm of this series, isn't it?
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AV Products Div., Product Development Dept., HiFi Group
In charge of circuit design and sound quality tuning of the A-S700. This was the first time she was selected as a member of the HiFi team, to handle the tuning for a core model.
|Continuously Variable Loudness Control
With this control, the midrange frequencies are attenuated over a continuously varying, level-dependent curve, instead of a fixed level of low and high frequency boost as in conventional loudness controls.
AV Products Div., Product Development Dept., HiFi Group
IIn charge of the A-S700 chassis design. He has successfully suppressed vibration in YSP models (Digital Sound Projector™, but he says that in a HiFi amp, it is the sensation of delicate balance that is important.
Loader mechanisms of the CD-S700 (front) and CD-S2000/1000 (rear). Although the specifications, including the material, of the trays differ, with the same basic design, the smooth opening and closing action is handed down from luxury machines.
—I would like to end by asking you about the mid-class S700 Series, which has inherited the style of the S2000/S1000 Series. Miss Wada is a young woman who was in charge of the A-S700 circuit design and sound quality tuning. Were many of your colleagues surprised to find you handling this kind of work?
Wada:Yes. Actually I have been responsible for system products such as PianoCraft, and it was the first time I designed a full-size HiFi amp. And it was the first time I was entrusted with tuning. I felt that I was learning on the job.
—Sound quality tuning is not just a design technology, it must demand a special capability to distinguish sounds.
Kumazawa:She used to sing vocals with a band and is capable of astutely hearing sounds. Not only her, but there are many people with musical experience in our company, so it is natural for them to have a shared consciousness of Yamaha sound.
—Ah, the view typical of people from Yamaha. But I wonder if people who play music are better than other people at asserting their view of music, that is, the sound they like themselves. For example, don't they tend to emphasize the kind of music they personally like? (laughs)
Wada:I wonder about that (laughs).
Kumazawa:Hmmm. If you listen to the source of the vocal with this amp, you feel that some things are natural. Basically, this is the route of the S2000/S1000, but compared with the warm tone of the S1000 Series, the sound of the S700 Series tends to be a little hard perhaps, or part of the heart of the sound of the vocal and guitar are clearly expressed.
—When I look at the specifications of the A-S700, it appears that its basic circuit configuration is a development of the conventional type.
Wada:Yes. It is not a Floating and Balanced Circuit like that of the A-S2000 or the A-S1000. We adopted a refined version of the conventional power amp circuit that has an established high reputation.
—What was your goal for its sound quality?
Wada:We carefully selected specialized high sound quality components, knowing they would be suitable for the models in the A-S2000/S1000 Series, and aimed for natural sound as similar in orientation to these as possible. And we think that there are many cases where a product in this class will be purchased to replace a mini component system, so as was mentioned before, I was determined to create sound that would let users enjoy the easy-to-understand and rich sound of vocals and guitars.
—You had a variety of heavy responsibilities, didn't you? (laughs).
Wada:Partly because the evaluation of the higher level models was high, I thought I had to make sure that I would not be told, "The S700 Series has a completely different sound."
—Therefore, the Continuously Variable Loudness Control, which has been offered on Yamaha amps for a long time, was also inherited by this model, right?
Wada:Considering amps in this price range, I think there are many opportunities to listen at low volumes or to use it with compact bookshelf speakers. In this sense, I like a heavy bass feel, and thought that it would be better to retain functions that offer control to suit the environment.
—The chassis has a center bar based on the same concept as that of the S2000/S1000 Series. This also benefits the sound, doesn't it?
Ito:Yes. It looks a little plain, but in fact it dramatically changes the sound. The rubber dampers on the block capacitors and other effective sound quality measures have also been added to its conventional structure.
—The fact that although its structure is different, its appearance and sound have an image common to that of the S2000/S1000 Series is quite surprising, isn't it?
Ito:That's true. Even detailed aspects are similar, for example, the long vertical knobs had to be aligned exactly vertically at the center click location. New innovations in production technology were necessary, compared with normal round knobs.
—The CD-S700 CD player, on the other hand, is the responsibility of Mr. Tanabe, just like the CD-S2000/S1000, but is it correct to consider it a brand new design?
Tanabe:Yes. While having the same original loader mechanism as the CD-S2000/S1000, it is a new design different from both conventional mid-class machines and from the CD-S2000/S1000.
—Although it's not an SA-CD compatible player like the CD-S2000/S1000, I suppose the reason for that was your focus on making it a specialized CD model.
Tanabe:Naturally, SA-CD compatibility was also a choice, but because of the design freedom we had, the CD-S700 was planned as a specialized CD machine. To the degree that a mechanism is simple, it is possible to choose from a variety of design solutions, so we thought we would be able to delicately build in not only its sound quality as an audio machine, by even its operating sound during play.
Kumazawa:SA-CDs certainly have superior soundfield expression capabilities. The CD on the other hand, has the ability to make us directly sense what we call the core energy of music. Sensuously, I think there is a difference similar to that between a balanced connection and a single ended connection. And for most listeners, the most common media they use is CD. Therefore we decided to make the CD-S700 a specialized CD machine.
—What about the sound quality tuning?
Tanabe:Unlike the other mid-class machines I have supervised, this time I had a new reference - the S2000/S1000 - so I concentrated on how close I could bring it to them. The chassis stiffness was thoroughly strengthened to handle the mass of the loader mechanism. Of course, I also firmly incorporated sound quality to match the A-S700.
—Nevertheless, I would not have thought that the appearance of the S2000 Series would result in you improving the middle class machines. Having a reference product seems to be quite significant for a manufacturer.
Kumazawa:I think that's true. Nowadays, the spread of portable music players and convenient music distribution is increasing the opportunities to encounter new music. By comparison, and it is strange for a person from a manufacturer to say this, but the world of HiFi audio continues to be difficult to enter. I feel that it is our responsibility to provide products with a wide range of sound tendencies and prices in order ensure that it is not too difficult to begin enjoying really good audio, that is, so that we can respond to people's simple desire to hear music with better sound.
—Yes, it is wonderful that Yamaha's new HiFi components are further expanding the circle of audio fans. Thank you very much for talking to us today.
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Yamaha's involvement with and passion for music goes back more than a century, to when we built our first reed organ in 1887. Now we are the world's leading producer of pianos and other musical instruments, and are involved with music in many other ways as well. We manufacture professional recording equipment, we design concert halls and we assist artists at concerts with set up and sound tuning. This knowledge and experience benefits our production of audio components in many ways. We introduced our first HiFi turntable in 1954, becoming the first company to actually use the term "HiFi." Thereafter we were one of the first to offer mass-produced, high quality audio equipment, and introduced many legendary stereo components.
First HiFi System introduced in 1922
We introduced numerous HiFi components (turntables, AM/FM tuners, integrated amplifiers, preamplifiers, power amplifiers and speakers) in 1955 - 1965.
Natural Sound Speaker Series introduced in 1967
NS-20 Monitor Speaker
CA-1000 Integrated Amplifier
Featuring A-Class operation, the CA-1000 set the standard for integrated amplifiers.
NS-690 Monitor Speaker
NS-1000M Monitor Speaker
A truly legendary speaker still revered by HiFi enthusiasts.
B-1 Power Amplifier
An innovative power amp that used FETs in all stages.
C-2 Control Amplifier
Received top prize at the Milan International Music and HiFi Show.
NS-10M Studio Monitor Speaker
Became of the most popular studio monitors in the world.
A-1 Integrated Amplifier
Yamaha's first straight arm turntable.
B-6 Power Amplifier
Pyramid-shaped power amplifier.
First CD Player (CD-1) introduced in 1983
B-2x Power Amplifier
MX-10000 Power Amplifier and
CX-10000 Control Amplifier
Redefined the capabilities of separate components.
AX-1 Integrated Amplifier
GT-CD1 CD Player
MX-1 Power Amplifier and CX-1 Preamplifier
Soavo-1 and Soavo-2 Natural Sound Speaker Systems
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Receiver / Integrated Amplifier
|Minimum RMS Output Power (8 ohms, 20 Hz-20 kHz)||90W + 90W|
|Maximum Power (8 ohms, 1 kHz)||145W + 145 W|
|High Dynamic Power/Channel (8/6/4/2 ohms)||140/170/220/290 W|
|Frequency Response||10 Hz-100 kHz +/-1 dB|
|Total Harmonic Distortion (CD to Sp Out, 20 Hz-20 kHz)||0.012%(50 W/8 ohms)|
|Signal-to-Noise Ratio (CD)||110 dB(input shorted, 200 mV)|
|Switchable CD Direct Amplification||Yes|
|Dimensions (W x H x D)||435 x 151 x 382 mm|